subsequent jewelry made of Sard

Persian Sovereignity in Anatolia and subsequent jewelry made of Sard

Starting from the 6th century BC, ornamental stones have been used ever-increasingly, particularly during the Greco-Persian period. Ring stones which are shaped as scarab the sacred beetle, and which emerged under the influence of Egyptian art, rings with figure engraved stones on the top and which are used as a seal seals in the shape of a pendulum with golden, silver, and bronze mount are the works of this period. During the Greco-Persian period art that fused Anatolian Hellenic styles and techniques rose as a result of the orders given by members of the Persian ruling class to local craftsmen in line with their own religious aesthetic cultures. This tradition of jewelry continued in the city of Sard during the subsequent Hellenic period as well.

1.Blue Gold of Anatolia : Chalcedony

Commercial relations in Anatolia began during the years 3000 B.C. Trade continued later on in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Caucasia, and Thrace. Anatolia’s first products of Export were gemstones and other rough materials. During the Neolithic Age, Obsidian that originated from Central Anatolia was sold in Cyprus and Mesopotamia. In the following years, Anatolian metallurgy was initiated and had its golden age. The noble and residents of the city grew interested in decorative accessories. As such, blue stone Export began in Eskişehir( where our company’s mineral deposits are located today). This stone was used during the periods of Hittites and the Urartu for manufacturing jewelry and seal ring probably due to its shades and extraordinary hardness.

The operation of these mineral deposits dates back to Ancient times (800-600 B.C) and the production peaked during the Roman period; 20-30 tons of processed and rough stones were exported and then became very popular in the West. Although it is hard to believe, people were able to engrave this hard stone back in those days and use it intensely. The most well-known piece that is made of chalcedony is ‘Blue Woman Relief from Bergama’. This relief is the size of a brooch and depicts a woman’s head. This piece which was manufactured in the past by the use of limited technology and which is one of the most interesting pieces of jewelry in the world is exhibited in the Istanbul Archeological Museum today.

Developing stone technology and the Woman from Bergama

During the Hellenistic Age; empires changed, rose, and fell but local authentic cultures remained untouched. Hellenistic kingdoms that were established while great empires were falling ruled people who found the opportunity to return to their local characters that grew in the Hellenistic melting pot and therefore, who were able to take a breath of relief. Stonemasonry, which was inherited from much earlier ages in Anatolia, maintained its presence during the Hellenistic period as well.

The heritage of the craftsmen who were able to manufacture masterfully Sard seals, scarab, and ring stones out of hard stones such as chalcedony, carnelian stone, and opal was taken under protection by the Bergama Kingdom this time. The first one of these two Works is a vase which is made of wood and is so small as to fit into a palm and the inner part of which was carved through a very small opening.

The second example is the brooch made of chalcedony, which originated from Mesopotamia and reached Anatolian Egypt and Greek civilizations after a journey that lasted a thousand years and which can be a symbol of the time when techniques such as engraved ring stones and figure-engraved embossed brooches peaked in Bergama.

This piece, which we herby recommend to be named Blue Woman from Bergama, is exhibited in Istanbul Archaeological Museum just like the mini vase we previously mentioned. Unfortunately, there are not many examples of Anatolia from this period when such exquisite pieces were produced. As we have learned from the book in which Theophrastus; who was born on the Lesbos Island in 372 B.C, who was one of the students of Plata school and Aristo and who was a natural historian; discussed stones; sarder, sardonyx, and many other stones were named after their presence and artistic production in Anatolia.

Well-endowed, vivid and colorful Jewelries

Types of jewelries increased in diversity during the Hellenistic Age. Jewelries are generally complex arrangements that mostly go well with exaggeration. Just as in sculpture and other plastic arts; striking and attractive qualities are observed in Jewelry.

An important innovation that stood out during such a period is that color was introduced to gold jewelry. Although ornamental stones are not used much in classical Greek Jewelry; the use of colorful stones; glass and enamel in the jewelry of the Hellenistic age added a radiant glow. The most popular stones were carnelian stone, garnet stone, chalcedony, quartz, amethyst, and emerald and they were used together with pearl, tile, and glasswork (enamel). This progress arose from interaction between Anatolia, the Middle East, and Egyptian cultures.

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